Hundred of millions of people of India live in cities situated on the banks of the river Ganga. Many of these cities have population of over a million each and are also heavily industrialized.
#The threat to the ecosystem of Ganga caused by the sewage and industrial effluents was released by the Government of India in 1986. The Ganga Action Plan was launched in that year. But it has miserably failed to meet the expectations of the people and even of its planners
"Ganga Action Plan (GAP) was first launched by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1985. Since then, the plan has seen two extensions and an expenditure of thousands of crores of rupees. But the Ganga river has remained dirty".
The ultimate objective of the GAP is to have an approach of integrated river basin management considering the various dynamic inter-actions between abiotic and biotic eco-system.
Not withstanding some delay in the completion of the first phase of GAP it has generated considerable interest and set the scene for evolving a national approach towards replicating this program for the other polluted rivers of the country.
The Manmohan Singh government junked the previous two failed GAPs and set up a new body, the National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA), in 2009 after being reelected. It allocated Rs 7,000 crore under the new Ganga project. Fast forward to 2016, the river is still dirty, if not dirtier.
The main problem with keeping the Ganga clean is that the run-off from the millions of tonnes of fertilizers and thousands of tonnes of pesticides used in agriculture goes directly into the river. Three-fourths of the pollution in the Ganga can be accounted for by municipal sewage from the cities, towns, and villages located along its banks.
Other Reasons for the Failure of the Ganga Plan:-
1. there was no proper law and order made by the government.
2. Environmental planning was poor not up to the mark for this large project
3. There was no bylaws for the long term planning. The schedule was made only for the short term course.
4. Insignificant cooperation between Central, State and Local Government bodies.
5.Lack of local technical expert committees for monitoring the work.
6.Least input from multidisciplinary environmental experts in policy planning of the Ganga Action Plan.