You don’t find logic in mythical or biblical stories. They are just stories which tells us about our existence without giving any logical explanation. Asking if the humankind descended from Adam and Eve is same as asking if the God really exists. The answers to both the questions depend on faith and not on any concrete explanation.
So, if we go by the biblical claims, yes, all humans are the sons and daughters of the first man and woman –Adam and Eve. Adam was created by God in his own image and to give him a companion, he created Eve from Adam’s rib. When Adam and Eve ate the fruit from the tree of knowledge and got banished from the Garden of Eden, God cursed Adam to toil on earth for living, and Eve to bear pain while giving birth. This can be one logical proof of us being the children of Adam and Eve, as we all have inherited this curse. Men have to go out for work and support their families, while women suffer from the pain of periods and childbirth.
Still, it does not give any concrete proof of our existence. That’s why Darwin came up with his scientific Theory of Origin in 19th century which created a sensation as it contradicted the Biblical story of Adam and Eve. Victorians, who were known for their devotion towards Christianity and the word of god were scandalized by the claims of Darwin which explained scientifically how humans (and other ceratures) came on earth biologically, and not due to any God’s miracle.