I don’t think I am the most qualified person to answer this question. And even those who are qualified in this niche, she or he won’t be able to answer that properly. Also, I think how long the water takes to reach our bladder varies from person to person. It depends on their internal functioning and the rate of blood circulation.
To know how long it takes in you, do an experiment yourself. Get up in the morning, ***** and drink a lot of water (at least 32 oz glass of water). Don’t eat anything then. Put the timer on and see how long it takes for you to feel the urge of urinating again. Clock the time and that’s your answer.
When you drink water, the water goes from your mouth to pharynx and then esophagus. Passing through esophagus, it reaches the stomach where a portion of it gets absorbed. Remaining reaches the small intestine, where a large portion gets absorbed. It is then the water enters our blood circulation. From there it goes through a series of organs, getting utilized and filtered. At the end, it gets filtered through kidneys and eventually reaches our bladder.
Hopefully, the answer painted the right picture and gave you what you’re looking for! :)