Every civilization emerged at the banks of the river, the reason being the situation is favourable for life's existence. Hence “Ancient Egyptian Civilization” thrived on the river NILE, which flows north from the heart of Africa to the Mediterranean Sea. Since EGYPT was surrounded by desert on its West, South & East, and sea in the North, this protected it from the outer forces & let it evolve in its unique way. We can record several fantastic developments which took place in the field of science & technology, Mathematics, Culture, Religion & Society. Language, Art & architecture also has stunning examples. Egyptian society was structured like a pyramid. Egyptians believed that the gods controlled the universe. Therefore, it was important to keep them happy. Egyptians also considered some human beings to gods. Their leaders, like pharaohs, were believed to be gods in human form. They had absolute power over their subjects. After pharaohs pass away, huge stone pyramids were built as their tombs. Pharaohs were buried in chambers within the pyramids. After PHARAOHS, there comes VIZIERS, the executive heads of the bureaucracy. Then HIGH PRIESTS followed by ROYAL OVERSEERS (administrators), who ensured that the 42 districts GOVERNORS carried out pharaoh's orders. ARTISANS, SCRIBE, FARMERS & LABOURERS, were at the bottom of the hierarchy.
In the ancient writings found, Pharaoh represented themselves as warriors, who single-handedly slaughtered the whole pride of lions. Society in Egypt was rigid as people were conscious of barriers between classes. Climbing up the ladder could only be achieved by outstanding accomplishments in professions such as SCRIBE & MILITARY. Trade missions were also looked after by the military to maintain sovereignty & expand its territories.
Their language was one of the earliest languages to be written. Sacred Carvings, HIEROGLYPH, were carved or painted over temple walls by the people of Egypt. Draftsmen were scribes who specialized in drawing, using a traditional grid of 18 squares.
Religion bound different people with similar values & common understanding, which is an essential element for the growth of civilization. Temples were constructed throughout the land to venerate local gods. These temples honoured a TRIAD OF GODS: OSIRIS, ISIS & HORUS. As Egyptians believed life after death, the practise of mummification was evident in their culture. Pyramid Texts were written on the inner passages & the walls of the burial chamber. These are also considered the oldest body of religious writings in the world.
Egyptians had mesmerizing architecture. Their buildings were decorated with paintings & carved images, three- dimensional statues. The beauty & grandeur of these massive structures are incomparable. How they developed them in primitive time is still a mystery.