North & South Poles are top & bottom of the world, where daylight is for six months & other six are of the night. Both have extreme temperatures and are icy cold places. Planet EARTH spins on the axis which gives us day & night. The axis is slightly tilted & it’s each end is categorized as NORTH & SOUTH POLE. The structure of imaginary lines which runs between the poles are called LONGITUDES. Other which runs around the globe are called LATITUDES. Poles are located at 90 degrees north & 90 degrees south.
NORTH POLE is further classified into 3 types, namely GEOGRAPHIC, MAGNETIC, and GEOMAGNETIC. The north pole mainly consists of sea ice, which is located about 725 km of Greenland, in the middle of the ARCTIC Ocean. A magnetic pole is formed due to the magnetic fields that are generated deep from the core of the earth. Slowly & gradually they keep flipping from north to south, on a very long time scale. Magnetic North Pole is about 160 km south of the geographic north pole.
The first people to reach the North Pole were ROBERT PEARY & MATTHEW HENSON, with four Inuit guides, on the 9th of April 1909. RONALD AMUNDSEN was the first person to see both poles.
SOUTH POLE is further classified into 4 types, namely GEOGRAPHIC POLE, MAGNETIC POLE, GEOMAGNETIC POLE and CEREMONIAL SOUTH POLE. The geographic south pole is the bottom part of the earth’s axis, from where longitude lines on the map radiate out. RONALD AMUNDSEN, on the 14th of December 1911, leads the first expedition to reach the south pole. Whereas, ROBERT FALCON SCOTT reached the pole five weeks later, on 18th January 1912. CEREMONIAL SOUTH POLE is the decorated copper pole surrounded by the flags of the 12 original Nations that signed the Antarctic Treaty and have their territories here. Magnetic Southpole is in the Antarctic Ocean & not located on Antarctica. It’s the southern pole of the earth’s magnet field. This also has a technical name is SOUTH MAGNETIC DIP POLE. Here compass needle can move vertically as well as horizontally, points straight up.