Electron is the subatomic particle which have negative electric charge. It is the basic elementary particle. It plays an essential role in various physics phenomenon like diffraction, photoelectric effect, electricity, magnetism, chemistry, thermal conduction, gravitation, electrostatic force, etc. It was first discovered by English physicist J. J. Thomson. He has performed an experiment in 1897 called cathode rays experiment along with many other physicists scientists and found a unknown particle, later named as electron.
Electron was first discovered by Joseph J. J. Thomson at the American Institute of Physics. He was a Cavendish Professor and director of Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University from about 1884 to 1919. He also worked on the conduction of electricity. He studied at Owens College, Manchester, with the best science faculties. Then he got admission to Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1913 he published a very influential monograph for other scientists and chemists so that they could use mass spectrographs. Firstly, scientists detected cathode rays and discovered that it is the carrier of the electrical properties of matter. Later, in 1897, J.J. Thomson worked on it and discovered that it is a negatively charged particle known as the electron. Electrons can easily be deflected bypassing other electrons close to it. Thomson carried out his experiment by taking gas at low pressure of about 0.1 mm Hg in a discharging tube.
In this discharging tube, two metal plates are present which are connected to oppositely charged poles of a battery which are called cathode and anode. High voltage ionization of gas occurs due to the ejection of negatively charged particles formerly known as electrons. Electrons contain a mass of 0.000549 AMU. Sir J. J. Thomson besides being a Physicist was a Nobel Prize winner. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1906 for the discovery of electrons. His son, G. P. Thomson also won a Nobel Prize for discovering wave properties of electrons in 1937. He died on 30th August 1940 at Cambridge. Thomson made atomic physics a modern science and by the discovery of electrons, he has made an outstanding accomplishment which is followed till now.
Researchers worked with power well before they comprehended that flow was made of electrons. The cathode tube was a perfect representation. By turning on some voltage, researchers could make fluorescent floods of power travel from the base piece of a glass cylinder to the top - yet nobody knew how it functioned. Some idea the beams were a wave going through a puzzling "ether" which they thought saturated all space. Others thought the beams were surges of particles.
J.J. Thomson chose to discover without a doubt. Thomson was a material science educator at Cambridge University in the UK. He set cathode tubes in electric and attractive fields. He realized that these fields will move particles from one side to another, however don't have a lot of impact on how a wave moves. In his investigations, the cathode beams twisted around aside, so Thomson realized the cathode beams should be made of some little molecule, which he named a "corpuscle."
Thomson at first idea his corpuscles were excessively little to bear some significance with anybody outside a science lab. Notwithstanding, individuals immediately understood that electric flow was indeed made of moving electrons. Since power is the soul of everything from PCs to telephones to microwaves, the electron ended up being fascinating to pretty much everyone.