The fullform of HIV is Human immunodeficiency viruses. HIV are a type of virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The virus is transmitted between humans through sexual contact or through blood to blood contact, for example when sharing a needle for drug use. HIV infects CD4 cells in the body and destroys them, which leaves the body without enough CD4 cells to fight off diseases or infections.
The discovery of HIV was first announced in July 1985 by Dr. Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Dr. Luc Montagnier from France who jointly received the 2008 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their contributions to discovering HIV and its prevention, along with its treatment by antiretroviral therapy (ART).