In the new Chrome update, things have slightly changed.
Earlier, in the older versions, right beside the window minimizing button, there was a login icon to log into your Chrome profile and sync across devices. That login icon has been removed now and has been placed right beside the three radio button on the far right that opens setting and other Google Chrome options.
(Courtesy: How-To Geek)
Also, the Chrome profile login option is accessible even in the settings of the browser.
Now to answer your question, YES, when you log in to your Google account, you would also be logged into your Chrome profile using the same credential. This feature, a rather controversial one, was available even in a few older versions.
Now point to note is, even with automatic login, your data (bookmark, history, and more) that gets attached to your Google account, don’t get synced across devices. You have to do that manually.
(Courtesy: The Verge)
Of course, there is also an option to disable this automatic sign in.
While the whole feature, on one hand, feels very convenient for seamless browsing, it also looks extensively intrusive. I love it though!