Symptoms of Clinical Depression
Emotional symptoms include diminished ability to experience pleasure, loss of interest in usual activities, sadness, pessimistic outlook, crying spells, hopelessness, anxiety (present in almost 90% of depressed outpatients), feelings of guilt, and psychotic features (e.g., auditory hallucinations, delusions). Physical symptoms comprise fatigue, pain (especially headache), sleep disturbance, appetite disturbance (decreased or increased), loss of sexual interest, GI and cardiovascular complaints (especially palpitations). Intellectual or cognitive symptoms include reduced ability to concentrate, slowed thinking, poor memory for recent events, confusion, and indecisiveness. Psychomotor disturbances may include psychomotor retardation (slowed physical movements, thought processes, and speech) or psychomotor agitation.