Legislature of India Act 1919 , became effective on 23 December 1919 after it was passed British Parliament and got regal consent. This demonstration epitomized the changes suggested in the Montague-Chelmsford Reforms and covered a ten years time span from 1919 to 1929.
Ruler Chelmsford became Viceroy of India on 4 April 1916. On 17 July 1917, Edwin Samuel Montagu was made secretary of state for Government of India. This was the time of World War I and our nation saw a fast development of progressives.
During the First World War, Gandhi Ji had mentioned the nation to help the partners in war. Indian public was expecting that they would likewise get vote based changes. Samuel Montagu is known to have placed an explanation in the British Cabinet which requested "steady improvement of free organizations in India with a view to extreme self-government" notwithstanding, later the words "extreme self government" were eliminated from his assertion and He announced what is currently known as Montagu Declaration.
The Montagu statement peruses as:
- The key expression "extreme self-government" was taken out yet, still the another key expression "dependable government" in this explanation gave the induction interestingly that rulers are responsible to general society.
- The statement made the conservatives glad and they said "It is Magna Carta of India". Anyway radicals communicated that it missed the mark for authentic assumptions for India. All things considered, all out autonomy was what they needed.
- The date was 20 August 1917 and it is otherwise called "August Declaration"
- The Government of India act 1919 was passed based on suggestions of Lord Chelmsford and Samuel Montagu to acquaint self-overseeing organizations bit by bit with India. This demonstration covered a long time from 1919 to 1929.
Significant Features of this Act were as per the following:
- Separate Preamble and End of Benevolent Despotism
- The Government of India Act 1919 had a different Preamble. This Preamble proclaimed that evenhanded of the British Government is the slow presentation of capable government in India. Consequently, this demonstration addressed the finish of big-hearted tyranny and started the introduction of mindful government in India.
Presentation of Diarchy
- The preface of the GoI Act, 1919 recommended for a decentralized unitary type of government. Diarchy implies a double arrangement of governments one is responsible another isn't responsible. The demonstration made an arrangement for order of the focal and common subjects. The commonplace subjects were isolated into two gatherings viz. held and moved.
- The held subjects were kept with the Governor and moved subjects were kept with the Indian Ministers.
- This division of subjects was fundamentally what they implied by presenting the Diarchy.
- The held subjects were the fundamental zones of law implementation like equity, police, and income. The moved subjects were like general wellbeing, public works, instruction and so forth
- The Indian leader included the Governor General and his committee. No bill of the council could be considered to have been passed except if consented to by the Governor General. The later could anyway establish a Bill without the consent of the lawmaking body.
- Bicameral Legislature
- This demonstration made the focal assembly bicameral. The primary house which was focal lawmaking body, with 145 individuals (out of which 104 chosen and 41 named) was called focal Legislative Assembly and second called with 60 individuals (out of which 33 chosen and 27 assigned) was called Council of States. The term of the get together was fixed 3 years and gathering 5 years. The focal governing body can be known as a crude model of the present Lok Sabha and gathering of states can be known as a crude model of Today's Rajya Sabha.